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The 1906 King’s Theatre was designed by James Davidson (exterior) and J.D. Swanston (interior), originally as a rival to Edinburgh’s Royal Lyceum Theatre, however in 1928 merged into the UK theatre empire managed by impresarios Howard & Wyndham. The theatre is locally known as “The Grand Old Lady of Leven Street”.
Building commenced in August 1905, and a year later Scottish-American industrialist Andrew Carnegie laid the memorial stone, which can still be seen on the landing of the central staircase leading from the main foyer to the Grand Circle bar.
The building’s red sandstone exterior presents a stern appearance typical of Scottish civic buildings, typical of Davidson’s “Lanarkshire municipal” style which is a little out of place in Edinburgh’s refined grey sandstone classicism. However the interior design, by Swanston, leads from grand foyers/lobbies and staircases – with some superb examples of Edwardian stained glass, into an auditorium of opulence, executed in a luscious Viennese Baroque style and colored in delicate creams and gold. Voluptuous semi-nude caryatids, representing music and the arts, support the three levels of boxes on either side of the proscenium arch with numerous cornucopias, scrolls, trumpet-playing putti, masks, and cartouches completing the heavily-detailed plasterwork throughout the auditorium.
After a final bill of some £70,000, the theatre opened on 8th December 1906 with a lavish production of “Cinderella”. Mr Robert Courtneidge, a well-known theatre manager/producer and playwright of the time, and a native of Edinburgh, produced the spectacle. Local newspaper reports of the opening night were extremely favorable.
The King’s was built by the Edinburgh Construction Company (Limited), whose chairman R.C. Buchanan managed the theatre from its opening, however by 1908 it became clear that Buchanan’s company could not pay the second half of the construction bill and so the theatre fell into the hands of William Stuart Cruikshank, the building contractor.
William Cruikshank’s son, A. Stewart Cruikshank, took on the role of theatre manager, and the theatre ran successfully for 20 years. In 1928 the King’s was merged with the Howard & Wyndham chain of theatres and A. Stewart Cruikshank became chairman of the group and was regarded as one of the most powerful people in UK theatre industry at the time.
The Cruikshank Room (Grand Circle level) was A. Stewart Cruikshank’s office, and also the location of Howard & Wyndham annual meetings (AGMs), which were deliberately held on Christmas Eve to ensure minimal shareholder intervention.
The theatre was originally equipped with film projection facilities in the form of a “Bioscope Box”, built of concrete and placed behind the Grand Circle promenade. It was likely a late addition as it does not appear on the 1905 plans for the theatre. Two Simplex projectors (bioscopes) created a picture of 18ft by 12ft over an 80ft throw. A 120-horsepower 100-amp generator supplied 80V DC to the projectors and three 30-amp Flood Arcs. The theatre was also originally fitted with a central vacuum cleaning plant, with taps to all areas of the auditorium, stage, offices, and even the grid!
Portobello-born Harry Lauder was a regular performer on the King’s stage in the 1920s, at the height of his fame when he was of the highest paid performers in the world. Lauder was knighted in 1919 for his tireless work organizing entertainment for the troops in the First World War. A plaque, presented by the British Music Hall Society and located in the foyer of the King’s, commemorates Lauder’s long association with the theatre.
The King’s auditorium currently has two balconies, however it was originally built with three, with a total seating capacity of 2,500. In 1950-51 the Gallery (upper balcony), always uncomfortable but latterly also unsafe, was demolished and the Family Circle (middle balcony) was re-raked more steeply backwards and extended to the rear of the old Gallery, creating what is now called the Upper Circle and reducing overall seating capacity to 1,530.
A Followspot Box was added at the rear of the new Upper Circle, accessed from the attic space above the old Upper Billiard Room. The Dress Circle (lower balcony) was renamed the Grand Circle. The reduction in balconies from three to two explains the large swathes of plain plaster wall that are seen on either side of the auditorium flanking the Upper Circle.
The upper Billiard Room, in the front section of the building, became redundant with the removal of the Gallery; this was used as office space for some time but is now a rehearsal room. The lower Billiard Room is now the Upper Circle bar area.
An enclosed box for stage lights was added to the front of the Upper Circle (a feature commonly known as “auto bins”), extremely sympathetic to the theatre’s Viennese Baroque design, and at a later unknown date but prior to 1973, a similar box was added to the front of the Grand Circle.
During the 1950-51 revamp, which included redecoration of the auditorium dome, the auditorium’s grand chandelier was taken down. It mysteriously disappeared, never to be seen again. The replacement, still in situ, is a poor reflection of the original chandelier.
Sir Sean Connery used to work backstage at the King’s Theatre. In 1951, Sean (then known as Tam) worked as a stagehand and it is allegedly at the King’s that his interest in the acting profession began. He auditioned for a production of South Pacific and, now calling himself Sean, landed a small part – and the rest is history.
By the late 1960s variety theatre was being eclipsed by television across the United Kingdom and so in a bid to secure the venue’s future, the Howard & Wyndham Company came up with a plan in 1968 to sell the King’s to Edinburgh City Council. This was not without precedent; the Council had previously taken on the Lyceum Theatre from Howard & Wyndham in 1964.
In 1985 the Council invested in the theatre by renovating and restoring soft furnishings, wood, and marblework. An orchestra pit lift was installed yielding a seldom-used extended capacity pit, and cinema-style seating replaced the traditional theatre seats reducing overall capacity to 1,336. At this time a trompe l’oeil painting by William McLaren, harmonious with the auditorium’s decoration and color scheme, was added to the auditorium ceiling’s dome, replacing the 1950s incarnation, which in turn had been painted over the original dome painting. During the renovation it was found that a well had been sunk during the time the site served as a brewery. The well’s presence necessitated reinforcement works underneath the theatre’s auditorium boxes to prevent any foundations from shifting over time – one of the side-walls of the auditorium had been balancing precariously on the edge of the well for 80 years!
In 1998 management of the King’s Theatre was handed-over to the Festival City Theatres Trust (FCTT), a charitable trust established in 1991 as the Empire Theatre Trust to transform the city’s shuttered Empire Theatre into the renovated and improved Festival Theatre, in order to run the two theatres in harmony and to cut costs by sharing resources.
Most recently in 2012 further renovations improved the seating (Stalls and Grand Circle only) with a return to traditional theatre-style seating, fixed antiquated ventilation systems and leaks in the roof, the latter necessitating the re-painting of the auditorium dome. As the 1985 painting was not original, the Festival City Theatres Trust commissioned Scottish artist John Byrne to design a completely new painting for the dome.
The safety/fire curtain dates back to at least 1930 and is likely original. Tradition has seen past productions record their time at the King’s on the rear of the safety curtain.
Another detail not visible to the public is the original paint frame at the rear of the theatre, immediately downstage of the rear fly floor. This allowed scenic artists to paint full-size backdrops using the hand-winched paint frame without impacting theatre operations, even during performances. The paint frame is not regularly used however it has been used for painting backdrops as recently as 2018. According to the Association of British Theatre Technicians, it is one of only six working paint frames in Scotland.
Other original stage machinery includes a seldom-used Victorian “corner trap” trapdoor mechanism (4+ operators required), and a “transformation drum” (more commonly known as a “drum and shaft” mechanism) above the grid which was used to control scene changes of flown wings, borders, and backdrops in a coordinated fashion thus achieving a complete change of scene by operating a single mechanism.
In 2018, Festival City Theatres Trust, by this time Scotland’s largest independent theatre organization, was renamed as Capital Theatres, and announced an ambitious £20-25 million redevelopment project to secure the King’s Theatre’s future for the next 50-100 years. The project plans to transform the theatre into an accessible, all-day arts venue with new spaces created for learning and heritage activities as well as hospitality. Backstage, the raked stage will be leveled and aging technical infrastructure will be upgraded.
To find out more about the King’s Redevelopment Project, check out the King’s Theatre Redevelopment Video hosted by Edinburgh native Grant Stott.
According to Light and Sound International magazine (January 2019), design and technical theatre consultancy Theatreplan has been chosen to work alongside architects Bennetts Associates on the redevelopment of the theatre.
As of Spring 2017 tours are available roughly once per month. The full schedule is available on the theatre’s website . Tours cost £10 per person (£8 for Friends) and run for around 90 minutes.
After reminding yourself of the public areas you’ll get to see Backstage and, if you’re lucky, the Understage and Dressing Room areas of the theatre normally closed-off to the public! Note: Backstage access is dependent on the visiting company’s theatre operations on the day of your tour and is not guaranteed. Information correct as of March 2017.
Photographs copyright © 2002-2020 Mike Hume/historictheatrephotos.com unless otherwise noted.
Text copyright © 2017-2020 Mike Hume/historictheatrephotos.com.
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