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The 1906 King’s Theatre was designed by James Davidson (exterior) and J.D. Swanston (interior), originally as a rival to Edinburgh’s Royal Lyceum Theatre, however in 1928 merged into the UK theatre empire managed by impresarios Howard & Wyndham. The theatre is locally known as “The Grand Old Lady Of Leven Street”.
Building commenced in August 1905, and a year later Scottish-American industrialist Andrew Carnegie laid the memorial stone, which can still be seen at the top of the central staircase leading from the main foyer to the Grand Circle.
After a final bill of some £70,000, the theatre opened on 8th December 1906 with a lavish production of “Cinderella”. Mr Robert Courtneidge, a well-known theatre manager/producer and playwright of the time, and a native of Edinburgh, produced the spectacle. Local newspaper reports of the opening night were extremely favorable.
The King’s was built by the Edinburgh Construction Company (Limited), whose chairman R.C. Buchanan managed the theatre from its opening, however by 1908 it became clear that Buchanan’s company could not pay the second half of the construction bill and so the theatre fell into the hands of William Stuart Cruikshank, the building contractor. Cruikshank’s son, A. Stewart Cruikshank, took on the role of theatre manager.
The theatre was originally equipped with film projection facilities in the form of a “Bioscope Box”, built of concrete and placed behind the Grand Circle promenade. It was likely a late addition as it does not appear on the 1905 plans for the theatre. Two Simplex projectors (bioscopes) created a picture of 18ft by 12ft over an 80ft throw. A 120-horsepower 100-amp generator supplied 80V DC to the projectors and three 30-amp Flood Arcs. The theatre was also originally fitted with a central vacuum cleaning plant, with taps to all areas of the auditorium, stage, offices, and even the grid!
Although the building’s red sandstone exterior presents a somewhat somber “bank-like” appearance, the interior design is a delicate Viennese Baroque with some superb examples of Edwardian stained glass throughout the front of house areas.
Portobello-born Harry Lauder was a regular performer on the King’s stage in the 1920s, at the height of his fame when he was of the highest paid performers in the world. Lauder was knighted in 1919 for his tireless work organizing entertainment for the troops in the First World War. A plaque, presented by the British Music Hall Society and located in the foyer of the King’s, commemorates Lauder’s long association with the theatre.
The King’s auditorium currently has two balconies, however it was originally built with three, with a total seating capacity of 2,500. In 1950-51 the Gallery (upper balcony), always uncomfortable but latterly also unsafe, was demolished and the Family Circle (middle balcony) was re-raked more steeply backwards and extended to the rear of the old Gallery, creating what is now called the Upper Circle and reducing overall seating capacity to 1,530. The Dress Circle (lower balcony) was renamed the Grand Circle. The reduction in balconies from three to two explains the large swathes of plain plaster wall which can be seen on either side of the auditorium flanking the Upper Circle.
An enclosed box for stage lights was added to the front of the Upper Circle (a feature commonly known as “auto bins”), extremely sympathetic to the theatre’s Viennese Baroque design (note: at a later unknown date but prior to 1973, a similar box was added to the front of the Grand Circle). The upper Billiard Room, in the front section of the building, became redundant with the removal of the Gallery; this was used as office space for some time but is now a rehearsal room. The lower Billiard Room is now the Upper Circle bar area. During the 1950-51 revamp, which included redecoration of the auditorium dome, the auditorium’s grand chandelier was taken down. It mysteriously disappeared, never to be seen again. The replacement, still in situ, is a poor reflection of its former self.
Sir Sean Connery used to work backstage at the King's Theatre. In 1951, Sean (then known as Tam) worked as a stagehand and it is at the King’s that his interest in the acting profession began. He auditioned for a production of South Pacific and, now calling himself Sean, landed a small part – and the rest is history.
By the late 1960s variety theatre was being eclipsed by television across the United Kingdom and so in a bid to secure the venue’s future, the Howard & Wyndham Company came up with a plan in 1968 to sell the King’s to Edinburgh City Council. This was not without precedent; the Council had previously taken on the Lyceum Theatre from Howard & Wyndham in 1964.
In 1985 the Council invested in the theatre by renovating and restoring soft furnishings, wood, and marblework. An orchestra pit lift was installed yielding a seldom-used extended capacity pit, and cinema-style seating replaced the traditional theatre seats reducing overall capacity to 1,336. At this time a trompe l’oeil painting, harmonious with the auditorium’s decoration and color scheme, was added to the auditorium ceiling’s dome, replacing the 1950s incarnation, which in turn had been painted over the original dome painting. During the renovation it was found that a well had been sunk during the time the site served as a brewery. The well’s presence necessitated reinforcement works underneath the theatre’s auditorium boxes to prevent any foundations from shifting over time – one of the side-walls of the auditorium had been balancing precariously on the edge of the well for 80 years!
Most recently in 2012 further renovations improved the seating (Stalls and Grand Circle only) with traditional theatre-style seats, fixed antiquated ventilation systems and a leaking roof, the latter necessitating the re-painting of the auditorium dome. As the 1985 painting was not original, the Festival City Theatres Trust commissioned Scottish artist John Byrne to design a completely new painting for the dome.
The safety/fire curtain dates back to at least 1930 and is likely original. Tradition sees productions record their time at the King’s on the rear of the safety curtain.
Another detail not visible to the public is the original paintframe at the rear of the theatre, immediately downstage of the rear fly floor. This allowed scenic artists to paint full-size backdrops using the hand-winched paintframe without impacting theatre operations, even during performances. The paintframe is not regularly used however it is know to have been used for painting as recently as 2002.
Other original stage machinery includes a seldom-used Victorian trapdoor mechanism (4+ operators required), and a “transformation drum” (more commonly known as a “drum and shaft” mechanism) above the grid which was used to control scene changes of wings, borders, and backdrops in a coordinated fashion thus achieving a complete change of scene by operating a single mechanism.
As of late 2018 the King’s Theatre has announced an ambitious redevelopment project to secure the venue’s future for the next 50-100 years. The raked stage floor will be leveled, aging technical infrastructure will be upgraded, and much-needed improvements to Front-of-House areas will be made including the addition of function spaces and education environments. To find out more, check out the King’s Theatre Redevelopment Video hosted by Edinburgh native Grant Stott.
As of Spring 2017 tours are available roughly once per month. The full schedule is available on the theatre’s website . Tours cost £10 per person (£8 for Friends) and run for around 90 minutes.
After reminding yourself of the public areas you’ll get to see Backstage and, if you’re lucky, the Understage and Dressing Room areas of the theatre normally closed-off to the public! Note: Backstage access is dependent on the visiting company’s theatre operations on the day of your tour and is not guaranteed. Information correct as of March 2017.
|Flying System||Halls counterweight system comprising 58 3-line Linesets: House Curtain, Bars A-D, Bars 1-53|
|Grid Height (downstage)||53ft|
|Average Bar/Pipe Length||39ft 4in|
|Counterweight System||Single Purchase apart from Bars/Linesets 44-53 which are Double Purchase to allow space for Dock Door to Stage below|
|FOH Truss Position||Stage Right/Left suspension points. Auditorium Ceiling Opening to Hanging Point: 4ft 6in. Stalls to Ceiling Opening: 53ft 6in. Ceiling Opening 5in diameter. Point to Point: 19ft. Stage Right Point to Iron: 8ft 2in. Stage Left Point to Iron: 8ft 9in|
|Hemp Sets||4 Hemp linesets installed upstage of Bar 53|
|Safe Working Load per Lineset||600lbs|
|Variations||Bars 11 and 34 only fly to a maximum height of 30ft 10in due to location of counterweight frame tie-bars. Bars 19, 20, 43 and 44 are underslung from the main roof beams which shortens the flying height by 1ft 4in|
|Dock Door||15ft 9in high by 7ft 6in wide|
|Theatre Masking||Full black-box masking available|
|Control system||ETC GIO 4,000 channel|
|Dimmers||252 channels Avolites Art 2000 (240 @ 2kW, 12 @ 5kW)|
|Followspots||2 x Robert Juliat Super Korrigan (1.2kW HMI)|
|Variable Size||Pit partially under forestage, mechanized lift as stage extension, removeable decking for largest pit|
|Bridge from SR to SL||Located between Bars D and 1, 1ft wide, 28ft 4in above stage floor|
|Height of Fly Floor (downstage)||23ft 5in|
|Height of Fly Floor (upstage)||22ft|
|Proscenium Arch Height||21ft 3.9in|
|Proscenium Arch Width||31ft 11.9in|
|Width of Stage Left wing||13ft 7in|
|Width of Stage Right wing||16ft 7in|
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